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©1995 Christian Ministries International
©2002 Jackson Snyder
©2005 M. Banks Brazell  All rights reserved


Prophets identify, define, and hate evil. They speak to injustice, often noticing what others take for granted or consider "that's just the way it is" as inequitable, unjust, or wrong. They are quick to detect when a group or individual is treated differently, especially if that different treatment puts the group or individual down or holds them to a different standard of acceptance by the larger group. 

Prophets often have the ability to discern another's motives and to read or hear "between the lines." They are natural intercessors, lifting up what they see unto Yahweh, sometimes with "inward groaning." They are direct, frank, and persuasive when speaking. Sometimes, but not always, prophets are given a glimpse of what might be if the congregation or organization is obedient to the Almighty. (This is frequently more in keeping with the pneumatic gift of prophecy from 1 Corinthians 12:10. Some individuals with the grace of prophecy also possess the gift of prophecy.) 

The prophets' weaknesses may include intimidation, a lack of compromise, negativity, pessimism, not being people-oriented, depressive tendencies, and a bent toward seeing things in "black-and-white." The Prophet is balanced by the Care Giver.

Healthy Prophets are able to articulate themselves in clear and powerful terms. They often draw vivid "word-pictures" to describe what they see and feel. This ability to articulate can often be by the written word as well. Qualities of expression that mark the prophet are directness, candor, and persuasiveness. In both public and private meetings, prophets often have the uncanny ability to "cut to the chase" as they slice through a clutter of details and peripheral issues to get to the heart of the matter at hand. 

This ability to see through the clutter often allows the prophet to discern ulterior motives others might be trying to conceal. Prophetically motivated people sometimes have the ability to "discern the hearts" of others, particularly when deception or deceit is being employed. Being frank and often blunt, prophets have no trouble confronting duplicity whenever and however it manifests itself. This discernment allows them to pick up on evil in whatever form it may present itself, and to name the evil for what it really is. Needless to say, the words and works of the prophetically motivated individual can often lead to fireworks in a meeting, conference, or congregation.

Prophets also identify strongly with the congregation, group, or assembly. It is not unusual for prophets to be the ones who not only feel the pain in a given group but also give that pain definition and voice. (Care Givers also often feel the pain, but they have a tendency to be so empathetic that they fail to give it definition and voice.) The prophet is often courageous and will be moved to action while others are still wringing their hands over a situation or feeling the need to talk things out. This courage will often thrust them out to the forefront, and prophets many times will "take a hit" for the rest of the team in order to move others to action. The prophet is often the first one to show a willingness to be broken in order to further what they perceive as Kingdom calling or direction.

This discernment and willingness to step out make prophets natural intercessors. Prophets intercede for the world, the unsaved, the wayward, and the contrary. They make "prayer warriors" par excellence. Prophets can identify and empathize so strongly in prayer that words can and do fail them, and they can be reduced to weeping and groaning out loud. It would not be out of character for a prophet to literally roar out to God in heartbreak over the sins of the world. This strong bent toward intercession gives the prophet a sense of urgency that is frequently misunderstood (or simply mystifying) to others.

Prophetically graced people may be quick to point out Scriptural qualifiers or mandates to support what they have perceived and are articulating. Healthy prophets keep Scripture in context, unhealthy prophets might use Scripture out of context in an attempt to "proof-text" their position and comments. But in either case, prophets will make plentiful use of Scripture. Prophets have an almost instinctual sense of the appropriate Scripture for the question or situation at hand. Not surprisingly, many preachers have the motivational grace of prophecy.

Prophets are also naturally suspicious of those who "talk the talk" but fail to "walk the walk." Prophets are routinely convicted of their own failings and shortcomings, leading to deeper commitment and discipleship in their own lives. Being "their own worst critic" they frequently expect no less from everyone else as well! They believe Jesus when he said, "By their fruits you will know them." Prophets, therefore, tend to judge not only the group, congregation, or assembly, but also the individuals they interact with along the way. When healthy, prophets can be a powerful force for conviction, repentance, and renewal within the life of an individual or the congregation. For this reason healthy prophets make excellent spiritual directors or mentors.

Healthy prophets 
§ Express verbally and powerfully. 
§ Are direct, frank and persuasive when speaking. 
§ Discern the characteristics and motives of others. 
§ Have the capacity to identify, define and hate evil.
§ Judge rightly the hearts of individuals and groups. 
§ Are willing to be "broken" to prompt action in others. 
§ Depend on scriptural truth to validate authority. 
§ Desire outward evidence to demonstrate inward conviction. 
§ Are concerned for Yahweh's program and protective of his work. 
§ Inwardly weep for the sins others.
§ May still have a bent toward pessimism or depressive moods.

Unhealthy prophets, or those prophets who are unaware of the power of their motivational grace, will often come across as belligerent and combative, seemingly taking the opposite side of every issue. They will stake out a position and defend it at all costs. Since they are not in touch with the inherent power of their prophetic grace, they can become intractable and immoveable. Their natural directness and frankness can become painfully tactless and unrestrained. Unhealthy prophets have a strong tendency to be pessimistic and negative in outlook; the unhealthier they are the more pronounced their pessimism and negativity will be. They literally cannot see the good in anything, or the potential for good in anything.

If you are dealing with an unhealthy prophet, they will often insist on wallowing in their negativity and pessimism regardless of how you attempt to portray "the bright side of things." Realize you can't win at that moment. However, prophets will also chew on what has been said to them, and often realize their error or bad behavior when they begin to trend upward from their unhealthy depressive pit. 

All of this means that the power of their grace has a great chance of being used destructively rather than constructively as they deteriorate from healthy to unhealthy. Along the way down, they become highly judgmental in a critical rather than convicting sort of way. Being overtaken by the power of their grace, they are often impersonal, uncaring or insensitive about the views or feelings of others. They may have a very low need to be seen as pleasing in the eyes of others. (Healthy prophets are first concerned about pleasing God, particularly when they think they are following the lead of the Holy Spirit. But unhealthy prophets not only do not care if they hurt someone's feelings, they might go out of their way to do so! Their healthy frankness can degenerate into quite an unhealthy acid tongue.)

Marginally unhealthy prophets can be overbearing in their efforts to evangelize, and unhealthy prophets can exhibit a "See it my way or go to Hell" type of approach. Their zeal can also lead them to extremes in defending what they perceive to be the "pure" faith or doctrine of their church. Again, their healthy ability to discern and judge gives way to a legalism and judgmental fundamentalism that is rigid and immoveable.

The unhealthy prophet moves with the same purposefulness of a healthy prophet, but without benefit of input from or sensitivity to others. Consequently, they can be seen as "loose cannons", impulsive, and unpredictable, or as mean-spirited and downright contentious and contrary.

The sheer power of this grace when wielded by an unhealthy prophet can be very intimidating, and it is not unusual to find unhealthy prophets "ruling the roost" within a congregation. Many small- and medium-sized congregations are dominated by one or more of these individuals. (It is particularly difficult to work with an unhealthy prophetic church treasurer!)

One of the best things an unhealthy prophet can do to get back on track is to step back and disengage from serving the church or community for a while. This is easier said than done. Since prophets often feel they have the inside track on things, they also can fall into the trap of thinking they have to make it all happen. The best solution for this unhealthy pattern of behavior is to take a self-or even congregationally-imposed Sabbath. Frequently, it will take a sabbatical-an extended time off to rest, pray, and reflect. During this time, a healthy prophet spiritual guide coming alongside the wounded prophet can be a Godsend!

So, when dealing with unhealthy prophets, these are your Look outs! 
§ Can intimidate by frankness and forcefulness. 
§ Refuse to compromise - appear rigid. 
§ Pessimistic - negative in outlook.
§ Legalistic, judgmental, contrary, contentious
§ Can and will use grace destructively. 
§ Not people-pleasers. May be insensitive. 
§ Over-zealous in personal evangelism to the point of offensiveness.
§ Appear impulsive, compulsive, or mean-spirited. 
§ Subject to deep depression. 

What Bible characters might be considered Prophecy-motivated? (Not necessarily prophets!) ____________________________________________________________
What fictional or historical character? ____________________________________
Who do you know personally that fits? ____________________________________

Temperament Mask, Temperament and Nine Key Type

Prophetically-motivated individuals most often admit they see things from a negative point of view. Sometimes they admit that they are seen by others as negative people. On the *Temperamental Mask Inventory (*DO scale) they often score themselves as very direct and not very open. Temperament in the context of *Inclusion is often *Choleric or some mix of Choleric.

So far in our research, prophetically-motivated people are testing out on the *Nine Key Type Personality Profile as:
Type 8 - The Powerful Individualist, and, at a lesser rate,
Type 4 - The Authentic Individualist.

We'll discuss the Temperamental Mask, Temperament, and Nine Key Type Personality Profile more fully later on in this course. For now, make just make note that these measurements are used to more fully inform the individual's understanding of their grace, personality, and perspective on life and ministry.

MOTIVATIONAL GIFT OF SERVING  - Fulfilling practical needs.

Serving-motivated individuals see needs and meet them quickly, and frequently tend to be impatient with those who do not see and act accordingly. They have great stamina, and will work extra hard to complete a task. serving-motivated individuals prefer short-range over long-range goals. They need opportunity to serve others, and they need to be appreciated. The servants' weaknesses include pushiness, appearance of self-advancement, difficulty in accepting being served themselves, feelings that can be easily hurt, wrongly seen as unspiritual, and being easily exploited by the church. The Minister is balanced by the Sharer.

Healthy serving-motivated individuals are often at the forefront of the majority of the meaningful ministries the church undertakes in its service to the community. Quite often, it is the minister who sees and is moved by a need in the community. For example, perhaps they are moved by the plight of the homeless and hungry in the inner city. The minister will put together a plan of action, and go to the pastor in charge and the governing council of the church, and spearhead the efforts to get a homeless shelter and soup kitchen going. They have a strong empathy with those they are reaching out to serve, and that often translates into a strong sense of urgency to address the situation. When faced with a choice between waiting on approval for the ministry or acting now, serving-motivated individuals will go so far as to make a dedicated contribution to the assembly in order to fund the mission they are seeking to get approved, and they will often go ahead and start the ministry with those dedicated funds, whether the assembly ultimately gives its approval or not. They see red tape as an obstacle to meeting a bona fide need, and have no problem in being pretty vocal about what they see as bureaucratic hindrances to valid ministry.

Serving-motivated individuals are workhorses and not show horses. They will show up first and leave last, and are driven by an attention to detail. They will work tirelessly to meet the need they have invested themselves in, and can become impatient with those who do not share their zeal and energy for the task at hand.

Serving-motivated individuals are motivated by helping others - and by pleasing others. They get a great satisfaction out of helping. They have the ability, almost an instinct, to discover and remember what individuals like and dislike, and will go out of their way to meet those likes. They appear selfless, but do have a need for peer and group recognition. A few "attaboys" go a long way in motivating serving-motivated individuals. Failure to receive recognition can make them surly and cantankerous, apparently for no reason at all. 

Serving-motivated individuals are results-oriented, and consequently function best with projects that are shorter-term rather than longer-term in scope. serving-motivated individuals are often the ones to start a new ministry and get it up and running, but they are not always the best choice to keep the ministry going once it has grown and matured a bit. For this phase, the "Adminstrator" often shines. Even then, serving-motivated individuals will often be the first one to volunteer to meet a need in the ministry or to step in and pick up the ball if it is dropped.

So, healthy serving-motivated individuals: 

§ Are alert and quick to detect and meet the practical needs of others. 
§ Meet needs quickly; feel impatient with others who do not. 
§ Use personal funds to avoid delay in meeting needs. 
§ Avoid red tape; often work alone. 
§ Frequently begin new ministries or charitable outreaches.
§ Have great physical stamina; not regarding weariness. 
§ Ability to recall likes and dislikes of others. 
§ Have a need for sincere appreciation; can detect insincerity. 
§ Willing to work extra to see the job done. 
§ Short-range goals preferred over long-range. 
§ Frustrated with deadlines and time limits - a quick worker. 

Unhealthy serving-motivated individuals are easy to spot if you know what to look for. Their need to serve will often make them a slave to the group, who will take them for granted. The natural sensitivity of the minister lets them know they are not properly appreciated, and they can go around with their feelings on their sleeves. They can also manifest themselves by taking over an area, and running it under the "my way or the highway" modus operandi. They will complain about not being appreciated and being overworked, but at the same time they cannot bring themselves to accept help from others. Their high need to please can also manifest itself by making them be the first in line for every ministry the group is involved in, leading them to be overworked and spread too thin to be effective, or giving the perception that they are "glory hounds." Their zeal for service can also make them highly critical of others who do not share their appetite for work. 

Unhealthy serving-motivated individuals are often so busy taking care of everything that they neglect their own relationship with God, confusing activity and service to God or the church with communion with God. Their prayer and devotional life often suffers, so they become stunted in their growth in discipleship. This lack of balance will also spill over into neglecting their families and other meaningful relationships, all in the name of serving God. Then they will wonder why there is no joy in ministry! 

Their zeal to get things going can also preempt necessary and proper oversight of the ministry on the part of the church, so they can be seen as rebellious and unwilling to submit to the proper authority. 

If you suspect you are, or are dealing with an unhealthy minister, here are your Look outs!

§ May appear pushy or even mean-spirited. 
§ Eagerness to serve may be seen as a desire for self-advancement. 
§ Can be upset with others who do not have the same gift. 
§ Find it difficult to accept service or help from others. 
§ Unarticulated desire for appreciation may result in hurt feelings. 
§ Desire to serve others may interfere with Yahweh's will for them. 
§ Desire to meet practical needs may be judged as lack of spirituality. 
§ Can be sidetracked with others' needs to the exclusion of family. 
§ Failure to submit to authority. 

What Bible characters might be considered Ministry-motivated? (Not necessarily serving-motivated individuals!) ____________________________________________________________
What fictional or historical character? ____________________________________
Who do you know personally that fits? ____________________________________

Temperament Mask, Temperament and Nine Key Type

Ministry-motivated individuals most often admit they see things from a negative point of view, but often do not consider that others see them that way. On the *Temperamental Mask Inventory (*DO scale) they often score themselves as not very direct or indirect, but somewhat open. Temperament in the context of *Inclusion is (and here we must guess for the time being) *Supine or *Melancholy.

So far in our research, we haven't had enough Ministry-motivated people completing the *Nine Key Type Personality Profile to make a distinction. Perhaps they are too busy serving to slow down and complete a profile or two! 

Again, more about the Temperamental Mask, Temperament and Nine Key Type Personality Profile as they correspond to Motivational Graces will be discussed later in the course. 


Teachers believe their gift is the fundamental one; teachers love to research words and validate truth, or compare what is generally thought to be true or right with the Bible or some doctrinal standard. Teachers are uncomfortable with anything that cannot be proven in the Bible; therefore they are essential to keeping doctrine biblical. The teachers' weaknesses include the appearance of lacking warmth and feeling, testing pastoral or other authority by a personal (or biblical) standard, and lack of practical application of Scripture in favor of the academic research. Teachers are balanced by Encouragers. 

Healthy Teachers are the ones we turn to with our questions about faith, Scripture, and doctrine. Healthy teachers are patient, going into the detail necessary for their "student" to attain understanding. They firmly believe that their gift is fundamental to all other gifts, for without teaching that leads to understanding even the best gifts can be used improperly. Didn't Paul himself argue that in 1 Corinthians 13 when he was teaching that unless the gift is exercised in love then it profits nothing, and doesn't the Proverb say that "with all thy getting, get understanding"? 

Teachers are precise in how they conduct themselves and in their articulation, and they expect no less in return from others. They will by nature "test the spirits" they encounter, whether it be spouse, child, pastor, another teacher, or the person sitting next to them in the pew. Pastors and other teachers in particular are held to a higher standard of performance, knowledge, and application. Teachers firmly ground themselves in Scripture, sometimes in a literal sense if that is the doctrine of their denomination, but most often they are unafraid to discover the context, meaning, and intent of the Scripture to its original audience or recipients.

Teachers also "test the spirits" by subjecting all new information to what they already know. Teachers are frequently compelled to do research rather than to accept a new teaching on face value alone. Even a new teaching from a trusted source will be subjected to some level of scrutiny.

Teachers tend to use Scripture to illustrate Scripture, and Scripture to interpret Scripture. They strive to keep the use of their illustrations and supporting Scripture in context, and are quick to call out when someone uses either out of proper context. They are sticklers for detail.

Healthy teachers often:

§ Believe that their gift is fundamental to all other gifts. 
§ Emphasize the accurate use of words; enjoy word studies. 
§ Test the knowledge of teachers. 
§ Delight in research to validate truth or doctrinal purity. 
§ Desire to evaluate new information by comparing it with established systems of truth. (i.e., "Where is the Scripture in all this?" or "Our doctrine states… ") 
§ Avoid non-biblical illustrations. 
§ Resist or reacts to Scripture used out of context. 

Unhealthy teachers can be hard to be around. Their attention to detail can make them quibble over every little thing that does not square with their understanding. In this regard they are often dogmatic and inflexible, argumentative with anyone or any view that does not agree with their own. They easily discount the views of those they consider to be "uneducated" or "ignorant", even if they would not use those terms out loud to describe a person. Consequently, they may discount what others have learned about God and faith "in the trenches" since it did not come from hours of arcane research. 

Consequently, their zeal for precision can preempt a valid application of a Biblical principle gleaned from "real life," and their zeal for research can preclude application of their learning to their own life or the life of the congregation. 

Unhealthy teachers can make life miserable for other teachers and for the preacher by incessant questioning and challenging, often on points of minutia. This can give others the impression that they are "know-it-alls" and full of themselves, and can lead them into a de facto exile within the congregation.

Their teaching style may be so pedantic that they appear ostentatious, prideful, or snobbish. They can be downright dull. They may intentionally hold back certain special facts, or keep knowledge just for their own self-indulgence. Their dependence on facts and research may seem to others to be greater than a dependence on the inspiration and illumination of the Holy Spirit, consequently their teaching may be perceived as uninspired and off the mark. This can lead to a perception on the part of their students that the teacher is unconcerned about their feelings, needs, or concerns.

Unhealthy teachers are so convinced that their gift is the fundamental gift that it is hard for them to be informed or enlightened by those with other gifts.

Unhealthy teachers may project their concerns about a lack of knowledge on the rest of the congregation ("They just don't get it!") This makes them judgmental, quick to spot the speck in their neighbor's eye, but oblivious to the judgmental log in their own eye. 

So, when dealing with one who might be an unhealthy teacher, here are your Look outs!

§ Discount learned, practical lessons; dismisses insight from others perceived to have little academic learning or formal education. 
§ Accuracy in interpretation may override practical application; failure to apply learning to the walk of faith.
§ Teaching style may be pedantic and/or dull. 
§ Extensive research appears to be dependent on intellect instead of the Holy Spirit. 
§ Use of knowledge to test teachings can appear to be pride of learning or combative. 
§ Depth or details of research appear to others to be unnecessary. 
§ Objectivity in research gives the appearance of lack of warmth and feeling; more concerned for the message than the response of the hearers.
§ Belief that their gift is critical to all others may subvert other gifts. 

What Bible characters might be considered Teacher-motivated? (Not necessarily teachers!) ____________________________________________________________
What fictional or historical character? ____________________________________
Who do you know personally that fits? ____________________________________

Temperament Mask, Temperament and Nine Key Type

Teaching-motivated individuals may see things either from a negative or positive perspective. On the *Temperamental Mask Inventory (*DO scale) they often score themselves as neither direct nor open. Temperament in the context of *Inclusion is often *Melancholy or some mix of Melancholy.

So far in our research, prophetically-motivated people are testing out on the *Nine Key Type Personality Profile as:
Type 1 - The Perfectionist / Reformer, and, at a lesser rate
Type 5 - The Observer / Philosopher.

Again, more later about the Temperamental Mask, Temperament and Nine Key Type Personality Profile as they correspond to Motivational Graces. 


Encouragers (exhorters) desire to help people advance themselves, providing steps to improvement. Encouragers are very practical, and able to see how suffering might produce spiritual maturity. Needing the acceptance of others, they are highly people-oriented. They love to see their advice being used to meet needs and often document their successes. The encouragers' weaknesses are impatience and oversimplification. Often they seem to have more faith in their own charisma than in the move of Yahweh. Isogetical rather than exegetical, they may read personal meaning into a text rather than drawing out the contextual meaning. An exhorter's family sometimes suffers from lack of proper attention due to his/her absence for social functions. Sexual predators are often drawn to them. Encouragers are balanced by Teachers. 

Healthy Encouragers are the ones we love to hear from in our times of discouragement, defeat, or confusion. They have the ability to speak to the heart of our circumstances in a way that brings hope, clarity, and direction. In this regard their gift is similar to some aspects of the gift of prophecy. A key and almost uniform distinction between prophets and encouragers, however, is that the prophet is seldom an optimist whereas the encourager will often be overflowing with optimism: "Hey, with God on your side how can you be defeated?" 

The main drive of an encourager is to pick up the brothers and sisters when they are down and out, or dazed and confused. Encouragers often offer a plan or course of action to help lead others out of the quandary they find themselves in, and when healthy the plan is often quite sound both Scripturally and theologically. An encourager with a good grasp of the Scripture story who is also well grounded theologically can help one see how their present circumstances have been used by God in the past to bring about what He desires. Consequently, encouragers are uniquely suited to minister to those in the midst of suffering or other difficult circumstances, particularly when it comes to spiritual growth, maturity, and the longer view that is often needed for spiritual perspective. However, there is a strong bent toward the "practical" rather than the "theoretical" or "spiritual" even in healthy encouragers, so their use of Scripture, theology, and tradition is often more utilitarian than not. This push toward functionality and utilitarianism can make even healthy encouragers discount valid aspects of spirituality and theology that do not seem to have an immediate applicability. In this regard, encouragers are often self-limiting and blind to the larger implications or applications that someone with a gift of teaching, for example, might readily see. That is one reason encouragers need to be balanced in the Body by teachers (And vice-versa! Encouragers can often see the practical application that a teacher misses.)

Encouragers are people-oriented with a high need to please and to feel needed. Even healthy encouragers can feel hurt by imagined or unintended slights. As a group, they tend to wear their feelings on their sleeves. The best cure for a slighted encourager is to get them involved and to let them do their thing. This need to please and to be needed makes them particularly vulnerable to sexual predators that have the ability to key in on their neediness and desire to please by playing on the sympathies of the encourager. 

Healthy encouragers: 

§ Visualize specific achievements in people, providing steps toward a desired outcome. 
§ Tend to avoid systems of information that lack practical application. 
§ Are able to see how endurance produces levels of maturity. 
§ Depend on individual acceptance; watch for (and expect) response. 
§ Look for living examples of wholesome Bible lifestyles. 
§ Enjoy seeing action meet needs. 
§ Are grieved when teaching does not have practical application. 
§ Delight in personal conferences, insights, sharing - people-oriented. 

Unhealthy encouragers are often acting out of an unrestrained need to please or be needed. This can make them smothering and generate patterns of avoidance in others, which only serves to make them more desperate to be needed and consequently more unhealthy. They can also appear to be less concerned about the person they are focused on, and more intent upon achieving a solution. Since encouragers need to find some success in their efforts, they can, when unhealthy, lose interest in helping when the process is more complicated or protracted than they first anticipated. 

Unhealthy encouragers are so busy trying to encourage others that their primary family relationships are often neglected. Spouses, children, or parents can find themselves on indefinite hold while the encourager is out pumping up the world.

This urgency to be needed and to be a helper can make an unhealthy encourager appear to be pushy. They might appear to be process-driven to the point of literally being impersonal. Therefore, they have a tendency to urge someone on to more and more action, when the proper spiritual response might be to wait upon the movement or direction of the Spirit. An unhealthy encourager will tend to use Scripture more as a tool, often taking it out of context to make their point.

Look out for these clues to unhealthy encouragers:

§ May appear callous, flighty or phlegmatic. 
§ Feed on success; can be impatient, procrastinate or give up on a project or person that is taking more time and effort than they first expected.
§ Family may suffer as attention goes to others.
§ May fall into romantic traps.
§ Emphasis on steps of action may oversimplify problems and solutions. 
§ Urgency to take action may appear as having more confidence in the proscribed steps than in the power of the Holy Spirit. 
§ May be over-zealous in personal evangelism to the point of offensiveness. 
§ Use of Scripture for practical application may be out of context. 

What Bible characters might be considered Encouragement-motivated? (Not necessarily just Barnabas!) ____________________________________________________________
What fictional or historical character? ____________________________________
Who do you know personally that fits? ____________________________________

Temperament Mask, Temperament and Nine Key Type

Encouraging-motivated individuals invariably see everything from a positive perspective. On the *Temperamental Mask Inventory (*DO scale) they often score themselves as very direct and very open. Temperament in the context of *Inclusion is often *Sanguine or some mix of Sanguine.

So far in our research, encouraging-motivated people are testing out as on that *Nine Key Type Personality Profile as:
Type 7 - The Optimistic / Generalist, and, at a lesser rate
Type 2 - The Helper / Caretaker.

More about the Temperamental Mask, Temperament and Nine Key Type Personality Profile, as they correspond to Motivational Graces, will be discussed later in the course. 


Sharers (givers) are stewards who make wise purchases and good investments. They often give anonymously. They frequently see needs that others overlook, and may anonymously meet those needs. Sharers are joyful when they perceive their gifts to be taken as "an answer to prayer" by the recipient. Since their gifts are high quality, they often desire to be a part of the work to which they are giving. By the same token, they might just as frequently want to be anonymous. Weaknesses of the sharer include a primary orientation to causes rather than people; therefore, they can be judgmental about how others use their money and materials. Seeing people as "causes" means they lose sight of them as individuals. They appear to want to control, and may seem to be stingy when they do not respond to a need as another thinks they should. Sharers often live in a very frugal fashion, some seemingly uninterested in meeting their own families' needs. Based on our most recent work, the Sharer may be balanced by the Encourager, the Merciful or the Teacher, depending on the temperament of the sharer. 

Healthy Sharers regard all that they have as a blessing, to be used to bless others. They understand and believe in the power of the tithe, and even beyond, as a critical way to make sure the resources needed for Kingdom work are on hand. A healthy sharer is a vital asset to any financial board or committee in a church or non-profit charitable agency. They have the ability to see the best deployment of both financial and material resources for the greatest impact, and they also have the ability to see beyond a simple equation that is often summed up in looking for "the most bang for the bucks." Healthy sharers know that the value of a single soul is beyond calculation. Partly for that reason, sharers like to see that people receive services or goods that are of high quality. 

Since healthy sharers know that physical needs often have to be met before spiritual needs can be addressed, they often see needs others with a more evangelistic orientation overlook or are simply blind to seeing. It is not unusual for a sharer to be highly motivated by "the least of these." It is also not unusual for sharers to be hands-on and serving in the field or at the point of need. But it is fully within character for that same sharer to want to approach a different need anonymously, preferring the role of an unseen angel to that of a tangible and visible deliverer. 

Healthy sharers, then:

§ Make wise purchases and investments. 
§ May desire to give anonymously. 
§ Are alert to valid needs overlooked by others. 
§ Enjoy meeting needs without pressure or appeals. 
§ Joyful when the gift is seen by the recipient as an answer to prayer. 
§ Are concerned that gifts are of high quality. 
§ Desire to feel a part of the ministry or individual to whom gifts are given.
§ Give personal time, energy, and input as well as giving material or financial resources.
§ Possess good stewardship skills and sound accounting practices.

Unhealthy sharers can appear to be callous, in that they will be more oriented to the cause and not the individual lives being addressed. This can also make them appear to be controlling and stingy, since they can decide against an individual's plight while citing the "greater good" or other such justification. While healthy sharers are often very good on stewardship or finance committees, unhealthy sharers can bring the process to a grinding halt by requiring extreme levels of qualification or justification. They can actually deteriorate to the point that they become self-justified in how many individuals they turn away, and not help. This uncharitable orientation is often based on a misplaced rationale to "save" the resources for a "real" need, or even for a "rainy day".

This failure to be responsive and to give is often perceived by others to be a lack of empathy, sympathy, or charity in the best sense of that word (read, unloving). An unhealthy sharer in the role of head of missions or the church treasury is guarantee of ongoing conflict and frustration in the operation of the church or organization.

Unhealthy sharers may also tend to neglect the basic needs of their family. It is not unusual to see them driving old vehicles in poor repair, for their house to appear rundown and seedy, and the family's clothing to be a bit threadbare. In their minds, they are hoarding against the day of disaster that never seems to come. For that same reason, they can be highly critical of how and what others do or do not give in support of the church or the cause. They can also be highly critical of how the church or a particular ministry is allocating its resources. They are extremely judgmental in the various areas of stewardship and ministry resource deployment.

That is why in some cases they need to be balanced by an encourager, who has the ability to see how to apply resources to solve a situation while keeping the orientation to the plight of the individual, or by a someone with the gift of caring/mercy, who can add their compassion into the mix with the sharer, or by a teacher, who can help inform and expand the horizons of the sharer.

These Look outs! are clues you are dealing with a less than healthy sharer:

§ Cause, not people-oriented. 
§ Judgmental regarding others' finances.
§ May become stingy with resources, overly concerned with qualifying a need. 
§ Desire to give appears to be an attempt to control a work or person. 
§ Refusal to respond may seem to be lack of generosity, or insensitivity.
§ Lives in a frugal fashion, seemingly not interested in meeting own family's needs in the appropriate economic "style." 

What Bible characters might be considered Sharing-motivated? ____________________________________________________________
What fictional or historical character? ____________________________________
Who do you know personally that fits? ____________________________________

Temperament Mask, Temperament and Nine Key Type

So far in our research, we haven't had enough Sharing-motivated people completing the *Nine Key Type Personality Profile to make a distinction. Like serving-motivated individuals, perhaps they are too involved in giving to slow down to complete an assessment! 

More about the Temperamental Mask, Temperament and Nine Key Type Personality Profile, as they correspond to Motivational Graces, will be discussed later in the course. 

THE MOTIVATIONAL GIFT OF ADMINISTRATING - Coordinating People, Resource, Schedules

Administrators (lit. "rulers") are organizers, able to see both the "details" and the "big picture," and therefore valuable in clarify long-range goals. Administrators are not procrastinators, but want to get the job done as expediently as possible. They are networkers, aware of resources, and usually do not push for leadership positions. However, administrators will move quickly to fill a perceived or actual leadership vacuum. Administrators are willing to endure negative reactions from other workers or peers if the job is getting done. The administrator's weaknesses include dependence on the plan instead of Yahweh. They respond strongly to criticism in kind. They often do not explain their plans, and consequently seem insensitive to workers. They come off as impatient to those who don't grasp the details and the big picture instantly. The Administrator is balanced by the Minister. 

Healthy Administrators are indispensable to any on-going ministry. They have the grace of being able to see the long-term goals, how that casts the big picture, and what details and intermediate steps are needed along the way to paint the big picture. Many times a healthy minister starts a new ministry or mission, and gets it rolling. But it is the healthy administrator that takes it to the next level, or keeps it going from start-up to a mature, on-going ministry. Lots of good ministries have faltered and failed over the years for want of a good administrator or two.

Healthy administrators know how to effectively delegate, but a characteristic of the administrator is to jump in and "make things happen" if a delegated task is not pursued to completion. For that reason, many administrators in volunteer organizations become a type of "jack-of-all-trades" and carry a lot of the ministry load because they become too conditioned to stepping in to pick up the ball once it's been dropped by another charged with that particular task. Frequently for otherwise healthy administrators, this path leads to a gradual deterioration into the "unhealthy" administrator.

Healthy administrators are organized, task and results oriented, and able to function over the long haul. They are adept at marshalling various disparate resources-financial, material, and personnel-to achieve the objective. Their first choice is to be the strong "second-in-command" to the designated leader, for example, the minister who started the ministry is complemented by an administrator that will keep the details coming together while the minister casts the vision and provides overall motivation and direction. (Adminstrators make good COOs-Chief Operating Officers-to CEOs, or Chief Executive Officers.) But, if the leadership falters, the administrator will move to fill the vacuum in order to protect achieving the objectives of the ministry. Since part of their grace is the ability to grasp and articulate vision, they are critical to the implementation of a vision. They tend to tackle their assignments with enthusiasm and are seldom procrastinators, nor do they tolerate procrastinators very well.

Healthy administrators are relatively thick-skinned, and able to take some personal or professional criticism or heat if it means the project or goals can stay on track. They thrive on new challenges, and can become bored with mere maintenance of a system. Unhealthy administrators, by contrast, are often the bureaucratic tinkers operating a creaky ministry in maintenance mode.

Healthy Administrators: 

§ See the overall picture, clarify long-range goals. 
§ Organize that for which they are responsible. 
§ Desire to complete tasks quickly; not procrastinators. 
§ Aware of the resources available to complete a task. 
§ Know what can or cannot be delegated; insight as to who fits where. 
§ Tends to stand aside until responsibility is delegated; does not push for positions of leadership. Often quickly assumes responsibility in a leadership vacuum. 
§ Endure immediate negative reactions to accomplish the ultimate goal. 
§ Fulfilled when all pieces come together and seeing people enjoy the finished product. 
§ Desire to move on to new challenges when a task is completed.
§ Able to grasp, articulate and motivate people around Yahweh's vision. 

Unhealthy Administrators have often deteriorated into "bean counters" who sit in the back room fretting over every little detail in a program or line item in the budget. (In this regard they are similar to an unhealthy sharer.) Or they become more interested in maintaining the ministry "like it's always been" rather than keeping it innovative and responsive to the times. In either case, they can make life miserable for those who are trying to do the ministry at hand since their usual ability to delegate effectively has degenerated into a total control, hands-on "micro management" that will drive away good volunteers. They begin to think that they are the only ones who can accomplish the objective at hand, which has often degenerated to maintaining the status quo.

Their usual thick skin becomes pretty thin, so that they react immediately and negatively to any criticism, no matter how constructive or timely it might actually be. Another extreme is that they can become complete insensitive and oblivious to criticism, not caring about it at all. In either case, they are hard to correct or to redirect.

In this mode, they are often (rightly) perceived by others as being insensitive, uncaring, and inflexible. They see people not as fellow workers in the Kingdom or as brothers and sisters in the Body, but as tools to be used to achieve the objective, or impediments to the objective that must be quashed. In this regard they are very utilitarian and impersonal. They tend to be very impatient with those who need to be brought up to speed or who need help seeing the vision or the objective.

Here are some "Look outs!" to keep in mind when dealing with unhealthy administrators: 

§ Respond to criticism with criticism, or even hostility; vengeful. 
§ Depend on the plan more than on the Holy Spirit. 
§ Delegation of responsibility seen as avoiding work. 
§ Willing to endure negative reactions of others without considering any merits of the critique. 
§ May be considered cold or hard-hearted. 
§ Neglect explaining the plan, prompting others to feel slighted, misused or not trusted. 
§ People viewed as resources; project or objective more important than people. 
§ Task-orientation appears to be insensitivity toward the priority of the volunteers. 
§ Impatience can make others feel belittled, alienated, incompetent, or inadequate.

What Bible characters might be considered Administrative? ____________________________________________________________
What fictional or historical character? ____________________________________
Who do you know personally that fits? ____________________________________

Temperament Mask, Temperament and Nine Key Type

So far in our research, we haven't had enough Administration-motivated people completing the *Nine Key Type Personality Profile to make a distinction. 

More about the Temperamental Mask, Temperament and Nine Key Type Personality Profile, as they correspond to Motivational Graces, will be discussed later in the course. 

THE MOTIVATIONAL GIFT OF CARING - Feeling Deeply the Hurts of Others - Empathy

Caregivers (Merciful) are empathic, and their empathy frequently attracts suffering people. They hope to remove the hurts of others, and are sensitive to words and deeds that hurt others. They are tolerant and liberal, and enjoy being with others with the same gift. They do not tolerate well those whom they perceive to be insincere or intolerant. The weaknesses of the caring are that they wound easily, are undisciplined in the faith and led by emotionalism. This motivational grace causes others to sometimes see them as seductive or interested in romance. All are gullible to a greater or lesser degree, due to their empathy and sympathy. The Caring one is balanced by the Prophet.

Healthy Caregivers often embody the "soul" or "heart" of a group or congregation. Their empathy makes them sensitive to the heartbeat of the Body, and to the pain in any individual members thereof. They are tolerant in that their empathy lets them identify with where someone is coming from, even if they don't personally agree from a Scriptural or moral point of view with the person's plight. In that regard, they are slow to judge or critique, and so tend to balance the prophet, who is often a bit hasty to judge or critique.

Caregivers are drawn to those who hurt or are in turmoil, and they are also highly sensitive to actions or words that might be hurtful to a particular group or individual. This also helps them temper the prophetic.

Caregivers are able to seek each other out in the congregation or group, and they tend to associate with each other. It is not unusual to see bereavement, hospital visitation, or support ministries almost entirely populated with caregivers. They are good at lavishing attention, love and support on those in need. They are moved more by spiritual, emotional, or mental distress than they are by physical suffering of an acute nature. In other words, if you are in the hospital with an accidentally broken leg, they will be sympathetic and helpful, but if you are there because someone abused you and broke that leg, they will outdo themselves giving whatever support you need.

But this desire to "make it better" can come off as enabling bad behavior or actions that created the hurt in the first place, and so it is helpful to have a healthy prophet or two connected to a care-giving ministry. There is a particularly gracious and compassionate symbiotic synergy that can occur when these two graces work together to bring healing and wholeness to bear on a situation.

Even healthy caregivers, like healthy encouragers, must be on guard that their compassion and empathy are not mistaken for sexual or romantic interest. Many wounded people are not particularly mature or healthy when it comes to emotional expression, and they can easily mistake godly compassion for plain old carnal passion.

Caregivers need to be aware that their ability to empathize makes them emotionally vulnerable, and their emotions can get ahead of their common sense. This makes even a healthy caregiver open to manipulation if they are not careful. In particular they should remember Jesus admonished his disciples to be as innocent as doves, yet as wise as serpents at the same time. Unfortunately, predators have a sixth sense in being able to pick out the compassionate and empathetic among us. 

Healthy Caregivers: 

§ Feel the atmosphere of joy or distress in a group. 
§ Share compassion with those in distress. 
§ Desire to remove hurts of others; empathic. 
§ Care more for mental distress than physical. 
§ Sensitive to words and actions that hurt others. 
§ Tolerant of personal differences. 
§ Enjoy being with others who are also caring-motivated. 
§ Withdraw from those they perceive as insincere, insensitive or overtly prophetic; they "put up a wall."

Unhealthy caregivers are often taken advantage of by others. Since it is hard for them to say no, they can be roped into almost anything a moment's notice. Therefore, it is important that caregivers are given some hard and fast boundaries to stay within in the exercise of their ministries. 

Their extreme ability to empathize often clouds their objectivity and better judgment, and as noted makes them susceptible to manipulation. They can be overly sensitive and easily wounded, upset, or offended, particularly by those with some of the stronger or bolder graces. 

By always wanting to rush in and make things better, they need to be sensitive that they might be interfering with a disciplining work of the Holy Spirit in someone's walk. So discernment needs to be developed as a mark of a healthy caregiver. Sometimes the best thing love can do is stand by and watch, painful as that might be. (Consider the Father and Holy Spirit having to stand by the Cross.) 

Unhealthy caregivers can become so identified with their care receivers that they take on their burdens in detrimental ways. So it is important for them to be aware that they can become depressed and wounded unnecessarily in exercising their gift. 

Caregivers need to keep these Look outs! in mind to avoid deterioration into the unhealthy:

§ Easily taken advantage of.
§ Not objective. 
§ Sensitive and easily wounded. 
§ Failure to establish and maintain prudent boundaries. 
§ May interfere in the Holy Spirit's process of discipline. 
§ Avoid being firm, therefore appear weak. 
§ Empathy and sensitivity causes others to believe they are led by emotion. 
§ Attention to the troubled interpreted as interest in romance rather than care. 
§ Unwilling to "speak the truth in love"; "laid back" to a fault. 
§ May become depressed or inwardly grieve over others with problems.

What Bible characters might be considered Care-motivated? ____________________________________________________________
What fictional or historical character? ____________________________________
Who do you know personally that fits? ____________________________________

Temperament Mask, Temperament and Nine Key Type

So far in our research, we haven't had enough Caring-motivated people completing the *Nine Key Type Personality Profile to make a distinction. 

More about the Temperamental Mask, Temperament and Nine Key Type Personality Profile, as they correspond to Motivational Graces, will be discussed later in the course. 

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