SNYDER BIBLE

Parallelism in "According to John"

Within the past two decades a discovery has been made that has destroyed the notion that the Good News According to John was written by a community of believers rather than by an individual.  How is it possible to tell?  By the fact that the entire book has been written in chiastic parallelism rather than in the standard narrative format.  Not only is the text a series of chiasms, but each section starting at the beginning and running forward parallels a section running backwards from the end.  This manner of writing makes it obvious that the story of the woman caught in adultery is not native to John.  It also points out the pivotal section of the whole to be in chapter 11, the story of Lazarus' rising.  Based on The Genius of John: A Composition-Critical Commentary on the Fourth Gospel by Peter F. Ellis.  FOR YOU HERE ARE A COUPLE EXAMPLES WITH AN EXERCISE IN WHICH YOU MAY TRY YOUR SKILL AT FINDING THE ELEMENTAL WORDS OF PRESENT CHIASTIC PARALLELS.  Translation based on Young's Literal Bible.

 

Prologue
A 1. In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with Elohe, and the Word was Elohe; 2. this one was in the beginning with Elohe; 3. all things through him did happen, and without him happened not even one thing that hath happened. 4. In him was life, and the life was the light of men, 5. and the light in the darkness did shine, and the darkness did not perceive it. 6. There came a man - having been sent from Elohe - whose name [is] John, 7. this one came for testimony, that he might testify about the Light, that all might believe through him; 8. that one was not the Light, but - that he might testify about the Light. A115. John doth testify concerning him, and hath cried, saying, 'This was he of whom I said, He who after me is coming, hath come before me, for he was before me;' 16. and out of his fullness did we all receive, and favor over-against favor; 17. for the law through Moses was given, the favor and the truth through Iesu the Anointed did come; 18. Elohe no one hath ever seen; the only begotten Son, who is on the bosom of the Father - he did declare.
B 9. He was the true Light, which doth enlighten every man, coming to the world; 10. in the world he was, and the world through him was made, and the world did not know him: 11. to his own he came, and his own did not receive him. B114. And the Word became flesh, and did tabernacle among us, and we beheld his brilliance, brilliance as of an only begotten of a father, full of brilliance and truth.
 
X 12. but as many as did receive him to them he gave authority to become sons of Elohe - to those believing in his name, 13. who - not of blood nor of a will of flesh, nor of a will of man but - of Elohe were begotten.

These passages are adopted from Peter Ellis, The Genius of John: A Composition-Critical Commentary on the Fourth Gospel. Liturgical Press, 1984.

   

Chiastic Parallels Between Chapter 20, 21 & 1

John 20

John 1

A 19. It being, therefore, evening, on that day, the first of the sabbaths, and the doors having been shut where the disciples were assembled, through fear of the Jews, Iesu came and stood in the midst, and saith to them, 'Peace to you;'

A1126. John answered them, saying, 'I baptize with water, but in midst of you he hath stood whom ye have not known, this one it is who is coming after me, who hath been before me,

22. and this having said, he breathed on [them], and saith to them, 'Receive holy spirit; 32. And John testified, saying - 'I have seen the spirit coming down, as a dove, out of heaven, and it remained on him; 33. and I did not know him, but he who sent me to baptize with water, He said to me, On whomsoever thou mayst see the spirit coming down, and remaining on him, this is he who is baptizing with holy spirit;
23. if of any ye may loose the sins, they are loosed to them; if of any ye may retain, they have been retained.' 29. on the morrow John seeth Iesu coming unto him, and saith, 'Lo, the Lamb of Elohe, who is taking away the sin of the world;
27. then he saith to Thomas, 'Bring thy finger hither, and see my hands, and bring thy hand, and put [it] to my side, and become not unbelieving, but believing.'  28. And Thomas answered and said to him, 'My Master and my Elohe; 29. Iesu saith to him, 'Because thou hast seen me, Thomas, thou hast believed; happy those not having seen, and having believed.' 34. and I have seen, and have testified, that this is the Son of Elohe.'
49. Nathanael answered and saith to him, 'Rabbi, thou art the Son of Elohe, thou art the king of Israel.' 50. Iesu answered and said to him, 'Because I said to thee, I saw thee under the fig-tree, thou dost believe; greater things than these thou will see;'

John 21

 
1. After these things did Iesu manifest himself again to the disciples on the sea of Tiberias, and he did manifest himself thus:

14. this [is] now a third time Iesu was manifested to his disciples, having been raised from the dead.

2. There were together Simon Peter, and Thomas who is called Didymus, and Nathanael from Cana of Galilee, and the [sons] of Zebedee, and two others of his disciples.

37. and the two disciples heard him speaking, and they followed Iesu.  

41. this one doth first find his own brother Simon, and saith to him, 'We have found the Messiah,' (which is, being interpreted, the Anointed,)

47. Iesu saw Nathanael coming unto him, and he saith concerning him, 'Lo, truly an Israelite, in whom guile is not;'

1. After these things did Iesu manifest himself again to the disciples on the sea of Tiberias, and he did manifest himself thus:

14. this [is] now a third time Iesu was manifested to his disciples, having been raised from the dead.

31. and I knew him not, but, that he might be manifested to Israel, because of this I came with the water baptizing.
3. Simon Peter saith to them, 'I go away to fish;' they say to him, 'We go - we also - with thee;' they went forth and entered into the boat immediately, and on that night they caught nothing. 4. And morning being now come, Iesu stood at the shore, yet indeed the disciples did not know that it is Iesu; . . . 12. Iesu saith to them, 'Come ye, dine;' and none of the disciples was venturing to inquire of him, 'Who art thou?' knowing that it is the Master;  26. John answered them, saying, 'I baptize with water, but in midst of you he hath stood whom ye have not known, this one it is who is coming after me, who hath been before me,

14. this [is] now a third time Iesu was manifested to his disciples, having been raised from the dead.
15. When, therefore, they dined, Iesu saith to Simon Peter, 'Simon, [son] of Jonas, dost thou love me more than these?' he saith to him, 'Yes, Master; thou hast known that I dearly love thee;' he saith to him, 'Feed my lambs.'

19. And this is the testimony of John, when the Jews sent out of Jerusalem priests and Levites, that they might question him, 'Who art thou?'

 42. and he brought him unto Iesu: and having looked upon him, Iesu saith, 'Thou art Simon, the son of Jonas, thou will be called Cephas,' (which is interpreted, A rock.)

19. and this he said, signifying by what death he willl glorify Elohe; and having said this, he saith to him, 'Be following me.' 37. and the two disciples heard him speaking, and they followed Iesu.

 43. On the morrow, he willed to go forth to Galilee, and he findeth Philip, and saith to him, 'Be following me.'

20. And Peter having turned about doth see the disciple whom Iesu was loving following, (who also reclined in the supper on his breast, and said, 'Master, who is he who is delivering thee up?') 21. Peter having seen this one, saith to Iesu, 'Master, and what of this one?' 22. Iesu saith to him, 'If him I will to remain till I come, what - to thee? be thou following me.' This word, therefore, went forth to the brethren that that disciple doth not die, 38. And Iesu having turned, and having beheld them following, saith to them, 'What seek ye?' and they said to them, 'Rabbi, (which is, being interpreted, Teacher,) where remainest thou?' 

39. He saith to them, 'Come and see;' they came, and saw where he doth remain, and with him they remained that day and the hour was about the tenth.
 23. He said, 'I [am] a voice of one crying in the wilderness: Make straight the way of the Master, as said Isaiah the prophet.' [first coming]

24. this is the disciple who is testifying concerning these things, and he wrote these things, and we have known that his testimony is true. 25. And there are also many other things - as many as Iesu did - which, if they may be written one by one, not even the world itself I think to have place for the books written. Amen.

 

19. And this is the testimony of John, when the Jews sent out of Jerusalem priests and Levites, that they might question him, 'Who art thou?'

 32. And John testified, saying - 'I have seen the spirit coming down, as a dove, out of heaven, and it remained on him;

 34. and I have seen, and have testified, that this is the Son of Elohe.'

 45. Philip findeth Nathanael, and saith to him, 'Him of whom Moses wrote in the Law, and the prophets, we have found, Iesu the son of Joseph, who [is] from Nazareth;'

 29. on the morrow John seeth Iesu coming unto him, and saith, 'Lo, the Lamb of Elohe, who is taking away the sin of the world . . .

   

Chiasm in the Story of Lazar

John 11:1-44

aa 1. And there was a certain one ailing, Lazar, from Bethany, of the village of Marya and Marta her sister -
2. and it was Marya who did anoint the Master with ointment, and did wipe his feet with her hair, whose brother Lazar was ailing - 3. therefore sent the sisters unto him, saying, 'Master, lo, he whom thou dost love is ailing;' 4. and Iesu having heard, said, 'This ailment is not unto death, but for the glory of Elohe, that the Son of Elohe may be glorified through it.'

5. And Iesu was loving Marta, and her sister, and Lazar, 6. when, therefore, he heard that he is ailing, then indeed he remained in the place in which he was two days, 7. then after this, he saith to the disciples, 'We may go to Judea again;' 8. the disciples say to him, 'Rabbi, now were the Jews seeking to stone thee, and again thou dost go thither!' 9. Iesu answered, 'Are there not twelve hours in the day? if any one may walk in the day, he doth not stumble, because the light of this world he doth see; 10. and if any one may walk in the night, he stumbleth, because the light is not in him.' 11. These things he said, and after this he saith to them, 'Lazar our friend hath fallen asleep, but I go on that I may awake him;' 12. therefore said his disciples, 'Master, if he hath fallen asleep, he will be saved;' 13. but Iesu had spoken about his death, but they thought that about the repose of sleep he speaketh. 14. Then, therefore, Iesu said to them freely, 'Lazar hath died; 15. and I rejoice, for your sake, (that ye may believe,) that I was not there; but we may go to him;' 16. therefore said Thomas, who is called Didymus, to the fellow-disciples, 'We may go - we also, that we may die with him,'

17. Iesu, therefore, having come, found him having been four days already in the tomb. 18. And Bethany was nigh to Jerusalem, about fifteen furlongs off, 19. and many of the Jews had come unto Marta and Marya, that they might comfort them concerning their brother;

a1a1 33. Iesu, therefore, when he saw her weeping, and the Jews who came with her weeping, did groan in the spirit, and troubled himself, and he said, 34. 'Where have ye laid him?' they say to him, 'Master, come and see;' 35. Iesu wept. 36. The Jews, therefore, said, 'Lo, how he was loving him!' 37. and certain of them said, 'Was not this one, who did open the eyes of the blind man, able to cause that also this one might not have died?' 38. Iesu, therefore, again groaning in himself, cometh to the tomb, and it was a cave, and a stone was lying upon it, 39. Iesu saith, 'Take ye away the stone;' the sister of him who hath died - Marta - saith to him, 'Master, already he stinketh, for he is four days dead;' 40. Iesu saith to her, 'Said I not to thee, that if thou mayest believe, thou will see the glory of Elohe?' 41. They took away, therefore, the stone where the dead was laid, and Iesu lifted his eyes upwards, and said, 'Father, I thank thee, that thou didst hear me; 42. and I knew that thou always dost hear me, but, because of the multitude that is standing by, I said [it], that they may believe that thou didst send me.' 43. And these things saying, with a loud voice he cried out, 'Lazar, come forth;' 44. and he who died came forth, being bound feet and hands with grave-clothes, and his visage with a napkin was bound about; Iesu saith to them, 'Loose him, and suffer to go.'
bb 20. Marta, therefore, when she heard that Iesu doth come, met him, and Marya kept sitting in the house. 21. Marta, therefore, said unto Iesu, 'Master, if thou hadst been here, my brother had not died; 22. but even now, I have known that whatever thou mayest ask of Elohe, Elohe will give to thee;' b1b1 28. And these things having said, she went away, and called Marya her sister privately, saying, 'The Teacher is present, and doth call thee;' 29. she, when she heard, riseth up quickly, and doth come to him; 30. and Iesu had not yet come to the village, but was in the place where Marta met him; 31. the Jews, therefore, who were with her in the house, and were comforting her, having seen Marya that she rose up quickly and went forth, followed her, saying - 'She doth go away to the tomb, that she may weep there.' 32. Marya, therefore, when she came where Iesu was, having seen him, fell at his feet, saying to him, 'Master, if thou hadst been here, my brother had not died;'
X 23. Iesu saith to her, 'Thy brother will rise again.' 24. Marta saith to him, 'I have known that he will rise again, in the rising again in the last day;' 25. Iesu said to her, 'I am the rising again, and the life; he who is believing in me, even if he may die, will live; 26. and every one who is living and believing in me will not die - to the age; 27. believest thou this?' she saith to him, 'Yes, Master, I have believed that thou art the Anointed One, the Son of Elohe, who is coming to the world.'
   

Chiasm in the Story of the Shepherd and Sheep

Try Underlining the Parallels for Yourself

John 9:39-41; 10:1-21

A39. And Iesu said, 'For judgment I to this world did come, that those not seeing may see, and those seeing may become blind.' 40. And those of the Pharisees who were with him heard these things, and they said to him, 'Are we also blind?' 41. Iesu said to them, 'If ye were blind, ye were not having had sin, but now ye say - We see, therefore doth your sin remain. A119. Therefore, again, there came a division among the Jews, because of these words, 20. and many of them said, 'He hath a demon, and is mad, why do ye hear him?' 21. others said, 'These sayings are not those of a demoniac; is a demon able blind men's eyes to open?'
B 1. 'Verily, verily, I say to you, He who is not entering through the door to the fold of the sheep, but is going up from another side, that one is a thief and a robber; 2. and he who is entering through the door is shepherd of the sheep; 3. to this one the doorkeeper doth open, and the sheep hear his voice, and his own sheep he doth call by name, and doth lead them forth; 4. and when his own sheep he may put forth, before them he goeth on, and the sheep follow him, because they have known his voice; 5. and a stranger they will not follow, but will flee from him, because they have not known the voice of strangers.' B1 7. Iesu said therefore again to them, 'Verily, verily, I say to you - I am the door of the sheep; 8. all, as many as came before me, are thieves and robbers, but the sheep did not hear them; 9. I am the door, through me if any one may come in, he will be saved, and he will come in, and go out, and find pasture. 10. 'The thief doth not come, except that he may steal, and kill, and destroy; I came that they may have life, and may have [it] abundantly. 11. 'I am the good shepherd; the good shepherd his life layeth down for the sheep; 12. and the hireling, and not being a shepherd, whose own the sheep are not, doth behold the wolf coming, and doth leave the sheep, and doth flee; and the wolf catcheth them, and scattereth the sheep; 13. and the hireling doth flee because he is an hireling, and is not caring for the sheep. 14. 'I am the good shepherd, and I know my [sheep], and am known by mine, 15. according as the Father doth know me, and I know the Father, and my life I lay down for the sheep, 16. and other sheep I have that are not of this fold, these also it behoveth me to bring, and my voice they will hear, and there will become one flock - one shepherd. 17. 'Because of this doth the Father love me, because I lay down my life, that again I may take it; 18. no one doth take it from me, but I lay it down of myself; authority I have to lay it down, and authority I have again to take it; this command I received from my Father.'
X 6. This similitude spake Iesu to them, and they knew not what the things were that he was speaking to them;